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Republic of Cyprus
In the European Copyright framework the rights of users and public interest organisations are codified as exceptions and limitations to the exclusive rights of authors and other rightsholders. As such, they form one side of the balance between the rights of creators to exercise control of their works and the rights of the public to access culture and information. While the exclusive rights of creators and other rightsholders have been largely harmonised across the 28 member states of the European Union, exceptions and limitations are far from harmonised. Article 5 of the 2001 Copyright in the Information Society (InfoSoc) Directive (2001/29/EC) contains a list of 20 optional and one harmonised exceptions. In 2012 the Orphan Works Directive (2012/28/EU EC) added another mandatory exception. This has created a situation where user rights across Europe are a patchwork.
On this site we document the implementation status of the 22 exceptions and limitations to copyright for all 28 member states. The information on the site is based on previous efforts to map the implementation status and input from expert contributors from all over Europe. As copyright law is permanently undergoing changes we also provide the possibility to submit feedback in order to update and improve the underlying information. You can find more information about this project on our background page.
CopyrightExceptions.eu presents the information as either a series of maps showing the implementation status for each exception, or as a table showing the implementation of all exceptions in all member states. Use the button in the top right corner to switch between the two views. In the map view you can use the menu on the left of the map to select an exception and explore the map. Click on a country to see the details of the implementation of the exception in that jurisdiction. In the table view you click on each individual cell to go a page with detailed information about that implementation.
Please note that due to the changes in copyright legislation information presented here may be out of date. If you notice mistakes or have suggestions for improvements please get in touch with us.
We thank the following persons, in alphabetic order per country, for their valuable feedback and expertise:
Christopher Lytras (CY) | Petr Kadlec (CZ) | Matej Myska (CZ) | Simone Schroff (DE) | Martin von Haller (DK) | morten bernhardt (DK) | Diego Naranjo (ES) | Cedric Manara (FR) | Bartolomeo Meletti (GB) | Bence Damokos (HU) | Aniko Grad-Gyenge (HU) | Darius Whelan (IE) | Paolo Emilio Ascoli (IT) | National Library Luxembourg, /c Claire Leonelli (LU) | Jeanine Rizzo (MT) | Lucie Guibault (NL) | Adam Karpinski (PL) | Krzysztof Siewicz (PL) | Ana Ramalho (PT) | Teresa Nobre (PT) | Zuzana Adamova (SK) | Matej Gera (SK)
We especially want to thank Ana Rosen and Guido Westkamp for their extensive studies on exceptions and limitations.